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Now they face serious threats from habitat loss. Land clearing, logging , and bushfires—especially the devastating season —have destroyed much of the forest they live in.

Koalas need a lot of space—about a hundred trees per animal—a pressing problem as Australia's woodlands continue to shrink. Koalas are listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, which has named the species one of 10 animals most vulnerable to climate change.

Increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is decreasing the nutritional quality of eucalyptus leaves which is already quite low and causing longer, more intense droughts and wildfires.

In response to drought, koalas are forced to stop napping and come down from the trees to find water , spending precious energy and putting them at a higher risk of predation.

Predators include dingoes and large owls. Chlamydia is widespread in some koala populations and can cause blindness, infertility, and sometimes death.

Koalas lost substantial portions of their habitat in the bushfire season and have been identified by the Australian government as one of animals requiring urgent help.

Wildlife hospitals, rescue organizations, zoos, and volunteers have stepped up to care for injured koalas, with the goal of rehabilitating and releasing them back into the wild.

Though there are some koala sanctuaries and reserves, many live on private, unprotected land. There are conservation efforts by the Australia Zoo and others to buy large tracts of land to set aside for koalas, and state governments are also creating new koala reserves.

Campaigns urging landowners not to cut down eucalyptus trees are also ongoing. Fur colour ranges from silver grey to chocolate brown.

Koalas from the northern populations are typically smaller and lighter in colour than their counterparts further south. These populations possibly are separate subspecies , but this is disputed.

Koalas typically inhabit open eucalypt woodlands, and the leaves of these trees make up most of their diet.

Because this eucalypt diet has limited nutritional and caloric content, koalas are largely sedentary and sleep up to 20 hours a day. They are asocial animals, and bonding exists only between mothers and dependent offspring.

Adult males communicate with loud bellows that intimidate rivals and attract mates. Males mark their presence with secretions from scent glands located on their chests.

Being marsupials, koalas give birth to underdeveloped young that crawl into their mothers' pouches , where they stay for the first six to seven months of their lives.

These young koalas, known as joeys , are fully weaned around a year old. Koalas have few natural predators and parasites, but are threatened by various pathogens , such as Chlamydiaceae bacteria and the koala retrovirus.

Koalas were hunted by Indigenous Australians and depicted in myths and cave art for millennia. The first recorded encounter between a European and a koala was in , and an image of the animal was published in by naturalist George Perry.

Botanist Robert Brown wrote the first detailed scientific description of the koala in , although his work remained unpublished for years.

Popular artist John Gould illustrated and described the koala, introducing the species to the general British public.

Further details about the animal's biology were revealed in the 19th century by several English scientists. Because of its distinctive appearance, the koala is recognised worldwide as a symbol of Australia.

The animal was hunted heavily in the early 20th century for its fur, and large-scale cullings in Queensland resulted in a public outcry that initiated a movement to protect the species.

Sanctuaries were established, and translocation efforts moved to new regions koalas whose habitat had become fragmented or reduced.

Among the many threats to their existence are habitat destruction caused by agriculture, urbanisation, droughts and associated bushfires , some related to climate change.

The word koala comes from the Dharug gula , meaning no water. It was at one time thought, since the animals were not observed to come down from trees often, that they were able to survive without drinking.

The leaves of the eucalyptus tree have a high water content, so the koala does not need to drink often. The specific name , cinereus , is Latin for "ash coloured".

Hypsiprymnodon moschatus. Diprotodon optatum. Zygomaturus trilobus. Nimbadon lavarackorum. Muramura williamsi. Ilaria illumidens.

The koala was given its generic name Phascolarctos in by French zoologist Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville , [10] who would not give it a specific name until further review.

Because Phascolarctos was published first, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature , it has priority as the official name of the genus.

Other names suggested by European authors included Marodactylus cinereus by Goldfuss in , P. The koala is classified with wombats family Vombatidae and several extinct families including marsupial tapirs , marsupial lions and giant wombats in the suborder Vombatiformes within the order Diprotodontia.

The modern koala is the only extant member of Phascolarctidae , a family that once included several genera and species. During the Oligocene and Miocene , koalas lived in rainforests and had less specialised diets.

The genus Phascolarctos split from Litokoala in the late Miocene [15] [17] and had several adaptations that allowed it to live on a specialised eucalyptus diet: a shifting of the palate towards the front of the skull; larger molars and premolars ; smaller pterygoid fossa ; [15] and a larger gap between the molar and the incisor teeth.

The reduction in the size of large mammals has been seen as a common phenomenon worldwide during the late Pleistocene , and several Australian mammals, such as the agile wallaby , are traditionally believed to have resulted from this dwarfing.

A study questions this hypothesis, noting that P. Traditionally, three distinct subspecies have been recognised: the Queensland koala P.

These forms are distinguished by pelage colour and thickness, body size, and skull shape. The Queensland koala is the smallest of the three, with shorter, silver fur and a shorter skull.

The Victorian koala is the largest, with shaggier, brown fur and a wider skull. A genetic study suggests that the variations represent differentiated populations with limited gene flow between them, and that the three subspecies comprise a single evolutionarily significant unit.

The koala is a stocky animal with a large head and vestigial or non-existent tail. Males are further distinguished from females by their more curved noses [31] and the presence of chest glands, which are visible as hairless patches.

The pelage of the koala is thicker and longer on the back, and shorter on the belly. The ears have thick fur on both the inside and outside.

The large forepaws have two opposable digits the first and second, which are opposable to the other three that allow them to grasp small branches.

On the hindpaws, the second and third digits are fused , a typical condition for members of the Diprotodontia, and the attached claws which are still separate are used for grooming.

Additional climbing strength is achieved with thigh muscles that attach to the shinbone lower than other animals.

The function of this relatively large amount of fluid is not known, although one possibility is that it acts as a shock absorber, cushioning the brain if the animal falls from a tree.

For example, when presented with plucked leaves on a flat surface, the animal cannot adapt to the change in its normal feeding routine and will not eat the leaves.

Its round ears provide it with good hearing, [35] and it has a well-developed middle ear. Unlike typical mammalian vocal cords , which are folds in the larynx, these organs are placed in the velum soft palate and are called velar vocal cords.

The koala has several adaptations for its eucalypt diet, which is of low nutritive value, of high toxicity, and high in dietary fibre.

The incisors are used for grasping leaves, which are then passed to the premolars to be snipped at the petiole before being passed to the highly cusped molars, where they are shredded into small pieces.

Unlike kangaroos and eucalyptus-eating possums, koalas are hindgut fermenters , and their digestive retention can last for up to hours in the wild, or up to hours in captivity.

Large particles typically pass through more quickly, as they would take more time to digest. Since the koala gains a low amount of energy from its diet, its metabolic rate is half that of a typical mammal, [45] although this can vary between seasons and sexes.

The koala was introduced near Adelaide and on several islands, including Kangaroo Island and French Island. They were likely driven to extinction in these areas by environmental changes and hunting by Indigenous Australians.

Koalas are herbivorous , and while most of their diet consists of eucalypt leaves, they can be found in trees of other genera, such as Acacia , Allocasuarina , Callitris , Leptospermum , and Melaleuca.

Although females can meet their water requirements from eating leaves, larger males require additional water found on the ground or in tree hollows.

Small koalas can move close to the end of a branch, but larger ones stay near the thicker bases. Because they get so little energy from their diet, koalas must limit their energy use and sleep or rest 20 hours a day; [63] [64] They are predominantly active at night and spend most of their waking hours feeding.

They typically eat and sleep in the same tree, possibly for as long as a day. The koala hugs the tree to lose heat without panting. While it spends most of the time in the tree, the animal descends to the ground to move to another tree, walking on all fours.

Koalas are asocial animals and spend just 15 minutes a day on social behaviours. In Victoria, home ranges are small and have extensive overlap, while in central Queensland they are larger and overlap less.

Resident males appear to be territorial and dominate others with their larger body size. This scent-marking behaviour probably serves as communication, and individuals are known to sniff the base of a tree before climbing.

Adult males communicate with loud bellows—low pitched sounds that consist of snore-like inhalations and resonant exhalations that sound like growls.

These calls are produced when in distress and when making defensive threats. As they get older, the squeak develops into a "squawk" produced both when in distress and to show aggression.

When another individual climbs over it, a koala makes a low grunt with its mouth closed. Koalas make numerous facial expressions. When snarling, wailing, or squawking, the animal curls the upper lip and points its ears forward.

During screams, the lips retract and the ears are drawn back. Females bring their lips forward and raise their ears when agitated.

Agonistic behaviour typically consists of squabbles between individuals climbing over or passing each other.

This occasionally involves biting. Males that are strangers may wrestle, chase, and bite each other. This involves the larger aggressor climbing up and attempting to corner the victim, which tries either to rush past him and climb down or to move to the end of a branch.

The aggressor attacks by grasping the target by the shoulders and repeatedly biting him. Once the weaker individual is driven away, the victor bellows and marks the tree.

Koalas are seasonal breeders, and births take place from the middle of spring through the summer to early autumn, from October to May.

Females in oestrus tend to hold their heads further back than usual and commonly display tremors and spasms. However, males do not appear to recognise these signs, and have been observed to mount non-oestrous females.

Because of his much larger size, a male can usually force himself on a female, mounting her from behind, and in extreme cases, the male may pull the female out of the tree.

A female may scream and vigorously fight off her suitors, but will submit to one that is dominant or is more familiar. The bellows and screams that accompany matings can attract other males to the scene, obliging the incumbent to delay mating and fight off the intruders.

These fights may allow the female to assess which is dominant. The koala's gestation period lasts 33—35 days, [85] and a female gives birth to a single joey although twins occur on occasion.

As with all marsupials, the young are born while at the embryonic stage, weighing only 0. However, they have relatively well-developed lips, forelimbs, and shoulders, as well as functioning respiratory , digestive , and urinary systems.

The joey crawls into its mother's pouch to continue the rest of its development. A female koala has two teats; the joey attaches itself to one of them and suckles for the rest of its pouch life.

The female makes up for this by lactating for as long as 12 months. The eyes begin to open and fine fur grows on the forehead, nape , shoulders, and arms.

At 26 weeks, the fully furred animal resembles an adult, and begins to poke its head out of the pouch. As the young koala approaches six months, the mother begins to prepare it for its eucalyptus diet by predigesting the leaves, producing a faecal pap that the joey eats from her cloaca.

The pap is quite different in composition from regular faeces, resembling instead the contents of the caecum, which has a high concentration of bacteria.

Eaten for about a month, the pap provides a supplementary source of protein at a transition time from a milk to a leaf diet. It explores its new surroundings cautiously, clinging to its mother for support.

Having permanently left the pouch, it rides on its mother's back for transportation, learning to climb by grasping branches.

When the mother becomes pregnant again, her bond with her previous offspring is permanently severed. Newly weaned young are encouraged to disperse by their mothers' aggressive behaviour towards them.

Females become sexually mature at about three years of age and can then become pregnant; in comparison, males reach sexual maturity when they are about four years old, [93] although they can produce sperm as early as two years.

Favourable environmental factors, such as a plentiful supply of high-quality food trees, allow them to reproduce every year.

Koalas may live from 13 to 18 years in the wild. While female koalas usually live this long, males may die sooner because of their more hazardous lives.

Eventually, the cusps disappear completely and the animal will die of starvation. Koalas have few predators; dingos and large pythons may prey on them; birds of prey such as powerful owls and wedge-tailed eagles are threats to young.

Koalas are generally not subject to external parasites , other than ticks in coastal areas. Koalas may also suffer mange from the mite Sarcoptes scabiei , and skin ulcers from the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans , but neither is common.

Internal parasites are few and largely harmless. Koalas can be subject to pathogens such as Chlamydiaceae bacteria, [96] which can cause keratoconjunctivitis , urinary tract infection , and reproductive tract infection.

Prevalence of KoRV in koala populations suggests a trend spreading from the north to the south of Australia. Northern populations are completely infected, while some southern populations including Kangaroo Island are free.

The animals are vulnerable to bushfires due to their slow movements and the flammability of eucalypt trees. Bushfires also fragment the animal's habitat, which restricts their movement and leads to population decline and loss of genetic diversity.

Models of climate change in Australia predict warmer and drier climates, suggesting that the koala's range will shrink in the east and south to more mesic habitats.

For example, a severe drought in caused many Eucalyptus trees to lose their leaves. Another predicted negative outcome of climate change is the effect of elevations in atmospheric CO 2 levels on the koala's food supply: increases in CO 2 cause Eucalyptus trees to reduce protein and increase tannin concentrations in their leaves, reducing the quality of the food source.

Price encountered the "cullawine" on 26 January , during an expedition to the Blue Mountains , [] although his account was not published until nearly a century later in Historical Records of Australia.

Barrallier preserved the appendages and sent them and his notes to Hunter's successor, Philip Gidley King , who forwarded them to Joseph Banks.

Similar to Price, Barrallier's notes were not published until They were described as 'somewhat larger than the Waumbut Wombat '. These encounters helped provide the impetus for King to commission the artist John Lewin to paint watercolours of the animal.

Botanist Robert Brown was the first to write a detailed scientific description of the koala in , based on a female specimen captured near what is now Mount Kembla in the Illawarra region of New South Wales.

Austrian botanical illustrator Ferdinand Bauer drew the animal's skull, throat, feet, and paws. Brown's work remained unpublished and largely unnoticed, however, as his field books and notes remained in his possession until his death, when they were bequeathed to the British Museum Natural History in London.

They were not identified until , while Bauer's koala watercolours were not published until The first published image of the koala appeared in George Perry's natural history work Arcana.

His disdain for the koala, evident in his description of the animal, was typical of the prevailing early 19th-century British attitude about the primitiveness and oddity of Australian fauna: [].

As Nature however provides nothing in vain, we may suppose that even these torpid, senseless creatures are wisely intended to fill up one of the great links of the chain of animated nature Naturalist and popular artist John Gould illustrated and described the koala in his three-volume work The Mammals of Australia —63 and introduced the species, as well as other members of Australia's little-known faunal community, to the general British public.

He identified similarities between it and its fossil relatives Diprotodon and Nototherium , which had been discovered just a few years before.

The first living koala in Britain arrived in , purchased by the Zoological Society of London. As related by prosecutor to the society, William Alexander Forbes , the animal suffered an accidental demise when the heavy lid of a washstand fell on it and it was unable to free itself.

Forbes used the opportunity to dissect the fresh female specimen, thus was able to provide explicit anatomical details on the female reproductive system, the brain, and the liver—parts not previously described by Owen, who had access only to preserved specimens.

Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester , visited the Koala Park Sanctuary in Sydney in [] and was "intensely interested in the bears". After World War II , when tourism to Australia increased and the animals were exported to zoos overseas, the koala's international popularity rose.

The koala is well known worldwide and is a major draw for Australian zoos and wildlife parks. It has been featured in advertisements, games, cartoons, and as soft toys.

The koala is featured in the Dreamtime stories and mythology of Indigenous Australians. The Tharawal people believed that the animal helped row the boat that brought them to the continent.

This narrative highlights the koala's status as a game animal and the length of its intestines. In one, a kangaroo cuts it off to punish the koala for being lazy and greedy.

Bidjara -speaking people credited the koala for turning barren lands into lush forests. Early European settlers in Australia considered the koala to be a prowling sloth -like animal with a "fierce and menacing look".

Created by Dorothy Wall in , the character appeared in several books and has been the subject of films, TV series, merchandise, and a environmental song by John Williamson.

Food products shaped like the koala include the Caramello Koala chocolate bar and the bite-sized cookie snack Koala's March.

Dadswells Bridge in Victoria features a tourist complex shaped like a giant koala, [] and the Queensland Reds rugby team has a koala as its mascot.

The drop bear is an imaginary creature in contemporary Australian folklore featuring a predatory, carnivorous version of the koala. This hoax animal is commonly spoken about in tall tales designed to scare tourists.

While koalas are typically docile herbivores, drop bears are described as unusually large and vicious marsupials that inhabit treetops and attack unsuspecting people or other prey that walk beneath them by dropping onto their heads from above.

While the koala was previously classified as Least Concern on the Red List , it was uplisted to Vulnerable in Koalas were hunted for food by Aboriginals.

A common technique used to capture the animals was to attach a loop of ropey bark to the end of a long, thin pole, so as to form a noose.

This would be used to snare an animal high in a tree, beyond the reach of a climbing hunter; an animal brought down this way would then be killed with a stone hand axe or hunting stick waddy.

The koala was heavily hunted by European settlers in the early 20th century, [] largely for its thick, soft fur.

More than two million pelts are estimated to have left Australia by Pelts were in demand for use in rugs, coat linings, muffs , and as trimming on women's garments.

The public outcry over these cullings was probably the first wide-scale environmental issue that rallied Australians. Novelist and social critic Vance Palmer , writing in a letter to The Courier-Mail , expressed the popular sentiment:.

No one has ever accused him of spoiling the farmer's wheat, eating the squatter's grass, or even the spreading of the prickly pear.

There is no social vice that can be put down to his account He affords no sport to the gun-man And he has been almost blotted out already from some areas.

Despite the growing movement to protect native species, the poverty brought about by the drought of —28 led to the killing of another , koalas during a one-month open season in August The first successful efforts at conserving the species were initiated by the establishment of Brisbane's Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary and Sydney's Koala Park Sanctuary in the s and s.

The owner of the latter park, Noel Burnet, became the first to successfully breed koalas and earned a reputation as the foremost contemporary authority on the marsupial.

This arrangement allowed him to undertake a detailed study of its diet in captivity. Since , koalas have been introduced to several coastal and offshore islands, including Kangaroo Island and French Island.

Their numbers have significantly increased, [] and since the islands are not large enough to sustain such high koala numbers, overbrowsing has become a problem.

For example, in —31, koalas were translocated to Quail Island. After a period of population growth, and subsequent overbrowsing of gum trees on the island, about 1, animals were released into mainland areas in The practice of translocating koalas became commonplace; Victorian State manager Peter Menkorst estimated that from to , about 25, animals were translocated to more than release sites across Victoria.

One of the biggest anthropogenic threats to the koala is habitat destruction and fragmentation. In coastal areas, the main cause of this is urbanisation, while in rural areas, habitat is cleared for agriculture.

Native forest trees are also taken down to be made into wood products. While urbanisation can pose a threat to koala populations, the animals can survive in urban areas provided enough trees are present.

As with most native animals, the koala cannot legally be kept as a pet in Australia or anywhere else. One virtually unknown risk to koalas is that of water in the lungs aspiration pneumonia , which can happen when drinking water from a bottle, as seen in numerous viral videos of well-meaning, but uninformed, people giving thirsty koalas water bottles to drink.

The safer way to provide a koala drinking water is via a bowl, cup, helmet or hat from which the koala can lap up the water it needs. Koala populations and habitat were impacted by the bushfires.

In June , a New South Wales parliamentary committee released a report stating that koalas could be extirpated from the state by Recommendations included establishing national parks on the George's River and Mid-North coast.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia. For other uses, see Koala disambiguation.

Though koalas look fuzzy, their hair is more like the coarse wool of a sheep. They have two opposing thumbs on their hands, and both their feet and hands have rough pads and claws to grab onto branches.

They have two toes, fused together , on their feet, which they use to comb their fur. Koalas live in the eucalyptus forests of southeastern and eastern Australia.

They rely on the eucalyptus tree for both habitat and food. Koalas can eat more than a pound of eucalyptus leaves a day. Tucked into forks or nooks in the trees, koalas may sleep for 18 to 22 hours.

Koalas can even store leaves in their cheek pouches for later. They eat so much eucalyptus that they often take on its smell.

UQ News. University of Queensland. Australian Koala Foundation. Journal of Comparative Physiology B. Charles C Thomas Publisher. Current Biology.

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Journal of Experimental Biology. Animal Behaviour. The first successful efforts at conserving the species were initiated by the establishment of Brisbane's Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary and Sydney's Koala Park Sanctuary in the s and s.

The owner of the latter park, Noel Burnet, became the first to successfully breed koalas and earned a reputation as the foremost contemporary authority on the marsupial.

This arrangement allowed him to undertake a detailed study of its diet in captivity. Since , koalas have been introduced to several coastal and offshore islands, including Kangaroo Island and French Island.

Their numbers have significantly increased, [] and since the islands are not large enough to sustain such high koala numbers, overbrowsing has become a problem.

For example, in —31, koalas were translocated to Quail Island. After a period of population growth, and subsequent overbrowsing of gum trees on the island, about 1, animals were released into mainland areas in The practice of translocating koalas became commonplace; Victorian State manager Peter Menkorst estimated that from to , about 25, animals were translocated to more than release sites across Victoria.

One of the biggest anthropogenic threats to the koala is habitat destruction and fragmentation. In coastal areas, the main cause of this is urbanisation, while in rural areas, habitat is cleared for agriculture.

Native forest trees are also taken down to be made into wood products. While urbanisation can pose a threat to koala populations, the animals can survive in urban areas provided enough trees are present.

As with most native animals, the koala cannot legally be kept as a pet in Australia or anywhere else. One virtually unknown risk to koalas is that of water in the lungs aspiration pneumonia , which can happen when drinking water from a bottle, as seen in numerous viral videos of well-meaning, but uninformed, people giving thirsty koalas water bottles to drink.

The safer way to provide a koala drinking water is via a bowl, cup, helmet or hat from which the koala can lap up the water it needs.

Koala populations and habitat were impacted by the bushfires. In June , a New South Wales parliamentary committee released a report stating that koalas could be extirpated from the state by Recommendations included establishing national parks on the George's River and Mid-North coast.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia. For other uses, see Koala disambiguation.

Temporal range: 0. Conservation status. Goldfuss , Lipurus cinereus Goldfuss, Marodactylus cinereus Goldfuss, Phascolarctos fuscus Desmarest , Phascolarctos flindersii Lesson , Phascolarctos koala J.

Gray , Koala subiens Burnett , Play media. A bellowing male in the Lone Pine Koala Sanctuary. Main article: Koala emblems and popular culture.

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